Expectancy theory assumes motivation is determined by one's perceived chances of achieving valued outcomes. Vroom's expectancy model of motivation reveals how effort→performance expectancies and performance→outcome instrumentalities influence the degree of effort expended to achieve desired (positively valent) outcomes. Managers are advised to enhance effort→performance expectancies by helping employees accomplish their performance goals. With respect to instrumentalities and valences, managers should attempt to link employee performance and valued rewards. Workers, for example that are paid on basis of time and not output will exert low effort, because it is in their own interest to work slowly and accumulate hours. If these workers can have guaranteed pay, in other words get a full day’s pay, but leave as soon as assigned task are completed, you will have higher effort
The advantage of VIE or Expectancy theory is that it provides a framework for understanding how motivation operates in a given situation. However, the disadvantage of it is that you can not expect people all act in a rational manner and weigh the various alternatives open to them.