What Scientific Evidence Has Been Obtained Since Darwin?

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Darwin's Theory For Natural Selection...

Darwin’s Theory of natural section was introduced by Charles Darwin in 1858. Darwin believed all plants and animals had evolved from a few common ancestors by natural selection. Plants and animals may produce offspring, but some of the young die before they can become parents according to Darwin’s theory, natural selection determines which members of that kind prematurely and which ones survive and reproduce.  

1.Fossil record - Darwin noticed that living species "succeed" fossil species in the same region. For example fossil sloth's are found in the same region as present-day sloth's. Fossils also showed Darwin that many species have gone extinct, and transitional forms document change in traits through time.

2. Geologic time scale - Earth in ancient; shows that time existed for organisms to develop from ancestral forms

3. Vestigial traits - Darwin was the first to describe and interpret these traits, which are common

4. Evidence that species are related - similar finch species (and other flora and fauna) on different Galapagos islands. Darwin reasoned that they shared a common ancestor.

5. Structural homologies - Darwin pointed out that if all mammals descended from a common ancestor, and if that ancestor had a limb with the same basic arrangement, then it would be logical to observe that its descendants had a modified form of the same arrangement.

6. Observations and conclusions drawn from them: There is difference within individuals of a population. Some differences are inherited. Some individuals survive and reproduce better than other individuals. Differential survival and reproduction (fitness) is influenced by the heritable traits of individuals. The process of survival of the most reproductively fit organisms is called natural selection.

It wasn't "only accepted very gradually". Within about five years of its publication, there were few researchers left who didn't accept evolution happens, and accounts for the diversity of life forms on the planet. A few wanted to keep people out of the picture. At that time, they were able to cite the absence of known evidence for transitional stages between non-human and human apes. However, that was blown out of the water later by the discovery of such remains as those of Homo erectus and Australopithecus.
I've got an 1866 book taking that line from Oskar Frass, a German palaeontologist. Although somewhat offended by the implications for human origins, he accepts that Darwin's theory makes a great deal of sense in terms of the fossil record, his own sp
One weakness with Darwin's theory is a lack of understanding as to how inheritance actually works. That was worked out much more convincingly by Gregor Mendel.

Vast amounts. Evolution has risen since Darwin's time to become the join theory of all biology. By this I mean that by understanding evolution we can make predictions that are testable in another field of biology It has given us the means to understand and fight the causes of disease. But most importantly it has shown us our place in the history of the world. We are not separate from the rest of the animal kingdom, we are part of it. We are connected by common decent to everything that walks, crawls, flies, swims and grows on this world. We are the cousins of chimps, more distant cousins to mice, trees and bacteria. We are the descendants of life's winners. Who survived the endless struggles of life to reproduce and pass on what made them successful in an unbroken chain stretching back over 3.5 billion years. Implications of natural selection in shaping 99.4% no synonymous DNA identity between humans and chimpanzees: Enlarging genus Homo.
We compare approximately 90 kb of coding DNA from 97 human genes to their sequenced chimpanzee counterparts and to available sequenced gorilla, orang-utan, and Old World monkey counterparts, and mice. The no identical changes (functionally important), like identical changes (functionally much less important), show chimpanzees and humans to be most closely related, sharing 99.4% identity at no identical sites and 98.4% at the same sites. On a time scale, the coding DNA divergences separate the human-chimpanzee clad from the gorilla clad at between 6 and 7 million years ago and place the most recent common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees at between 5 and 6 million years ago. The evolutionary rate of coding DNA in the catarrh clad (Old World monkey and ape, including human) is much slower than in the lineage to mouse. Among the genes examined, 30 show evidence of positive selection during descent of contrariness. No identical substitutions by themselves, in this subset of positively selected genes, group humans and chimpanzees closest to each other and have chimpanzees diverge about as much from the common human-chimpanzee ancestor as humans do. This functional DNA evidence supports two previously offered taxonomic proposals: Family Homicide should include all extant apes; and genus Homo should include three extant species and two subgenera, Homo (Homo) sapiens (humankind), Homo (Pan) troglodytes (common chimpanzee), and Homo (Pan) panics (booboo chimpanzee).
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Vast amounts. The theory of Evolution has risen since Darwin's time to become the unifying theory of all biology. This means that by understanding evolution, we can make predictions that are testable   in other parts of biology.

But most importantly, it has shown us our place in the history of the world. We are not separate from the rest of the animal kingdom, we are part of it. We are connected by common decent to everything that walks, crawls, flies, swims and grows on this world. We are the cousins of chimps, more distant cousins to mice, trees and bacteria. We are the descendants of life's winners. Who survived the endless struggles of life to reproduce and pass on what made them successful in an unbroken chain stretching back over 3.5 billion years.

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