What Is A Non Specific Foci Of High Flair And T2 Signal Noted In The Subcortical White Matter Of The High Right Parietal Lobe Measuring 0.5cm In It's Greater Dimension?


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A non specific foci of high flair and T2 signal  noted in the subcortical white matter of the high right parietal lobe measuring 0.5cm in its greater dimension, is a lesion in the white matter of the brain. These white matter lesions appear mostly to be the result of microvascular disease which is seen in normal aging of over forties, migraines, hypertension, and possibly some of the clotting disorders which can result in tiny, ministroke events, eg. Hughes Syndrome.
Microvascular disease is an angiopathy that affects small blood vessels in the body.  This sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes mellitus for a long time.

High blood glucose levels occur because the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels to take in more glucose than normal. These cells do not depend on insulin. They then form more glycoproteins on their surface than normal, and also cause the basement membrane to grow thicker and weaker. The walls of the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, and therefore they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. Then some cells, for example in the retina diabetic retinopathy or kidney diabetic nephropathy, may not get enough blood and may be damaged. Nerves, if not sufficiently supplied with blood, are also damaged which may lead to loss of function.

Anti-phospholipid syndrome or Hughes syndrome is a disorder of coagulation that causes blood clots, thrombosis, in arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, or severe pre eclampsia. The syndrome occurs due to the autoimmune production of antibodies against phospholipids, a cell membrane substance. In particular, the disease is characterized by antibodies against cardiolipin anti-cardiolipin antibodies and _2 glycoprotein I.

The term "primary anti-phospholipid syndrome" is used when APS occurs in the absence of any other related disease. APS is commonly seen in conjunction with other autoimmune diseases; the term "secondary anti-phospholipids syndrome" is used when APS coexists with other diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. In rare cases, APS leads to rapid organ failure due to generalised thrombosis and a high risk of death; this is termed catastrophic anti-phospholipid syndrome.

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