What Is The Comparison Among Perfect Competition,monopoly And Oligopoly?

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Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
This is a rather common question within the Market Structure topic in Economics. In Market Structure, the Perfect Competition (PC) and the monopoly are considered extreme market structures, while other market structures also exist, like the oligopoly and the monopolistic competition(MC). Before understanding the differences of these 2 market structure. It's important to realize that the PC market structure consists of many firms or sellers in an area or industry. The monopoly on the other hand, consists of a single seller. A good example, would be someone selling things on an island. The differences between the PC and the monopoly market structure are (1) Ease of entry and exit for firms (2) Type of product sold (3) Type of firm (4) Profit in short run and long run. First of all, is (1) ease of entry and exit for firms. For the PC market structure, new firms can easily enter the market structure, as there are no barriers of entry. This means that new firms who knows that there is a profit to be made in some area, location or industry can easily set up a new shop there. For the monopoly, there is substantial or high barriers of entry preventing new firms from entering the market structure. These barriers of entry are created by existing or dominant firms in a monopoly to prevent new firms or competitors to enter the market structure. The second difference is (2) the type of product sold. For a PC market structure, the product sold is similar. This means that what one seller is selling, is what another seller is selling. Hence products in the PC market structure are perfect substitutes. We also assume that in PC market structure, the consumers have perfect knowledge of the product. This means that the consumers are aware of the price sold in another shop. For the monopoly, the product sold are not perfect substitutes, and can be rather unique. The third difference is the (3) type of firm. Since the PC market structure faces the above 2 characteristics, this means that the firm in this market structure are powerless to influence the price. This means they have no control to increase the price of the product. This is because if they increase the price of the product, and there are perfect competition, firms who increase the price, will lose out to other firms. Hence firms in PC market structure are considered to be Price Takers. Firms in monopoly market structure on the other hand, are Price Makers. This means that they can influence the price of their product sold to consumers. The monopoly is able to do that, as the monopolist is the single seller in a market. The last difference is the (4) existence of profit. For the PC firm, there is a possibility to earn abnormal profit in the short run, but not possible in the long run. This is because, in a PC market structure, when existing firms earn profit, new firms will enter the market structure, shrinking the profit. For the monopoly, there is a possibility to earn abnormal profit in short run and long run, as there is the existence of barriers of entry to prevent new firms to enter the market. Hope this helps. ( although I may have listed the differences here, they are not the only ones, there are others as well, but the rest can be complicated and might need the use of graphs ).
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Because in monopoly there is only one firm so producer of firm decide about the price of commodity there fore it work as price maker
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
In perfect competition there are price takers. But in monopoly they got the market power
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Basically, perfect competition is a literary perfect market- people have perfect knowledge of prices, products. Monopoly is that market where only one firm dominates the market and oligopoly consists of small number of firms competing.
Saurav Mandal Profile
Saurav Mandal answered
In neoclassical economics and microeconomics, perfect competition describes a market in which no buyer or seller has market power. In the short term, such markets are productively inefficient and allocatively efficient. However, In the long term, such markets both allocatively and productively efficient. In general a perfectly competitive market is characterized by the fact that no single firm has influence on the price of the product it sells. Because the conditions for perfect competition are very strict, there are few perfectly competitive markets.

In economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos , alone or single + polein , to sell) exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient control over a particular product or service to determine significantly the terms on which other individuals shall have access to it. Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition for the good or service that they provide and a lack of viable substitute goods.The verb "monopolize" refers to the process by which a firm gains persistently greater market share than what is expected under perfect competition.

An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). The word is derived from the Greek for few (entities with the right to) sell. Because there are few participants in this type of market, each oligopolist is aware of the actions of the others. The decisions of one firm influence, and are influenced by the decisions of other firms. Strategic planning by oligopolists always involves taking into account the likely responses of the other market participants. This causes oligopolistic markets and industries to be at the highest risk for collusion.

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