What Kinds Of Ions Do A Sodium Atom And A Chlorine Atom Become When A Valence Electron Is Transferred From One To The Other?

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Katie Harry answered
Sodium is a metal and an alkali element. This means that it loses its electrons during a chemical reaction.
Chlorine on the other hand is a halogen and from Group 7. These compounds gain an electron during a chemical reaction to become stable and  complete their  octet for the last electron shell.

Let's look at their reactions:

Na ---> Na+ + e-

Chlorine takes up the electron lost by sodium:

Cl + e- ---> Cl-

So, when they combine, the resulting compound, sodium chloride, has a lattice of positive ions of sodium called cations and negatively charged chloride ions called anions.

2Na + Cl2 ---> 2 Na+Cl-

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