DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic acid to give it its full name, is comprised of five elements: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus.
These elements, in various forms, make up the 'building blocks' of the DNA, known as nucleotides, come in six different groups: Deooxyribose, a type of sugar made of hydrogen and oxygen; a phosphate group, formed of three oxygen atoms to one of phosphorous; and the four nitrate groups, each with their own special name.
The Four Nitrate Groups of DNA
Adenine - comprised of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms (C5H5N5)
Guanine - identical to Adenine, but with the addition of one oxygen atom (C5H5N5O)
Thymine - the same elements as Guanine, but with a different atomic composition (C5H6N2O2)
Cytosine - the more unstable member of the nitrogen group (C4H5N3O)
It takes millions of these nucleotides to 'build' a single molecule of DNA. The nitrate groups form the interior of the strand, with the sugar and phosphorous groups an exterior 'backbone' to the strands.
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