During Which Stage(s) Of Cellular Respiration Is CO2 Produced?


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Aidan McCartney Profile
Aidan McCartney answered
During cellular respiration CO2 is mostly produced during the Krebs cycle, where four compounds of CO2 are released. However 2 compounds of CO2 are produced as Pyruvate acid is converted into a two carbon compound known as acetyl.

The Krebs cycle also known as the citric acid cycle is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in all living cells, especially those that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. The components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established by discovery of Vitamin C by Hungarian Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi and continued on to its complex metabolism into energy and metabolites by Nobel laureate Hans Adolf Krebs, a German born, Jewish refugee to Britain.

In aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle is part of a metabolic pathway involved in the chemical conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water to generate a form of usable energy. Other relevant reactions in the pathway include those in glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation before the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation after it. In addition, it provides precursors for many compounds including some amino acids and is therefore functional even in cells performing fermentation. Its centrality to many paths of biosynthesis suggest that it was one of the earliest formed parts of the cellular metabolic processes, and may have formed abiogenically.

The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound to form a six-carbon compound, citrate.

The citrate then goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing two carboxyl groups as CO2. The carbons lost as CO2 originate from what was oxaloacetate, not directly from acetyl-CoA. The carbons donated by acetyl-CoA become part of the oxaloacetate carbon backbone after the first turn of the citric acid cycle. Loss of the acetyl-CoA-donated carbons as CO2 requires several turns of the citric acid cycle. However, because of the role of the citric acid cycle in anabolism, they may not be lost, since many of TCA cycle intermediates are also used as precursors for the biosynthesis of other molecules.

Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced. Electrons are also transferred to the electron acceptor Q, forming QH2. At the end of each cycle, the four-carbon oxaloacetate has been regenerated, and the cycle continues.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
I think it's anaerobic and aerobic respiration
Michael Sholar Profile
Michael Sholar answered
CO2 is mostly produced by during the Krebs (Citric Acid) Cycle (4 CO2's / Glucose).  There is also CO2 produced right before the  Krebs cycle as pyruvate is converted to a 2 carbon compound (Acetyl) that then enters the Krebs cycle (2 CO2's / Glucose).

Here is a diagram:

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