They have very long axons which can take the message a very long way before passing it onto the next cell, this makes it quicker. Another adaptation is the myelin sheath it makes the cell very thick and the thicker they are the faster the impulses are transmitted across them; the sheath insulates the axon and makes the electrical impulse 'jump' increasing the speed of transmission. Dendrites are also useful to the nerve cell as each dendrite can receive signals from other neurones and this means that one neuron can receive thousands of impulses at once.
Thanks. You’ve helped make it clearer for me!gmail login
The nerve cell is very short and wide so there for is easier to transmit messages to the brain. :)