Edward Chace Tolman Was An American Psychologist Who Made Significant Contributions To The Study Of Learning And Motivation. How Can This Information Be Applied To Schools And Vocational Training?


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You can show hands on and make a map of what should be learned and the student applies hand on experience to applications of experience to form a concept that gives them everything they need to fulfill a vocational education.  They are not given a maze with reward of finding the degree instead they work without having a maze that gives reward for going to each piece of the puzzle of learning. Over self pace the student learnes all aspects and applies them together as a final working, problem solved thought process.    Principles:  1. Learning is always purposive and goal-directed.  2. Learning often involves the use of environmental factors to achieve a goal (e.g., means-ends-analysis)  3. Organisms will select the shortest or easiest path to achieve a goal.  Tolman (1932) believed and compiled five types of learning: (1) approach learning, (2) escape learning, (3) avoidance learning, (4) choice-point learning, and (5) latent learning. All forms of learning depend upon means-end readiness, i.e., goal-oriented behavior, mediated by expectations, perceptions, representations, and other internal or environmental variables.  When everything over time comes together the learning becomes the means of reaching the goal.

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