What Is Chemosynthetic Theory? What Are Its Advantages And Disadvantages?


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Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
According to the chemosynthetic theory the primitive earth (Billions of years ago) was barren, solitary and inhospitable. The earth at this time didn't comprise of any biotic or abiotic features, but was a huge mass containing dissimilar proportions of methane, ammonia, hydrogen gas and water vapor. This meant that the earth obtained a high tendency of volcanic eruption due to the contribution of the lack of the ozone layer which allowed UV radiation and light to penetrate the earth's atmosphere at ease, another factor which promoted this, was the recurrent release of combustible gases and chemicals into the atmosphere.
The process of chemosynthesis can be divided into 6 significant segments which lead to the origin of the first living cell. The theory states that life developed from non living materials, which incorporated the process of natural selection that had occurred 100 million years ago. This intended that cells were able to divide, multiply and metabolize.
The first stage of the chemosynthetic theory occurs when arbitrary molecules within the atmosphere of primitive Earth subtend simple organic molecules which have the ability metabolize assisted by energy subtracted from the Sun and other sources as well. The Chemosynthetic theory was tested by a famous experiment called the Miller – Urey. This simulated a similar condition of primitive earth which results the simple chemicals converted into basic organic molecules such as formaldehyde, cyanide, glycine, alanine and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) this indicated these amino acids and nucleotides could have been formed under the atmospheric conditions of primitive Earth. The stage could be explained by the diagram below.
The Second stage describes how the simple organic molecules (formed in the first stage) gradually join together under the influence of heat to create organic macromolecules. The simple organic molecules formed (amino acids) bond to create proteins, peptides, hydrocarbons which combine to form lipids and carbohydrate that amalgamate to form complex sugars.
Throughout the third stage, the macromolecules characterize themselves into organized bodies carrying the trends and traits of an organism. The developments of these molecules are known to be the ancestors of cells due to the tiny figure and a spherically bound membrane called Coacervates. These macromolecules have a few features of contemporary cells like the ability to simply metabolize, grow by accumulating additional molecules and reproduce by fission.
The fourth stage shows its distinctiveness by the emergence of nucleic acids. The significance of these acids was that they began to control the process of reproduction and internally managed the activities of the macromolecules (Coacervates). This stage marks the improvement in organization of the macromolecules and also marks the first establishment of living things.
The fifth phase shows the first signs of evolutionary development. Natural selection now comes into the operation via organisms which use energy proficiently and reproduce easily and genetic management by nucleic acids.
The sixth and final stage is the arrival of the first prokaryotic autotrophic cells which had the ability to make energy and food from non living things such as sunlight, gases and water.
The Panspermia theory of life suggests that life on earth was derived from outer space, from another planet. The theory also states that there were seeds scattered all over the galaxy gradually concluding that life could exist anywhere interplanetary due to the proposition that the fundamentals of life were always there but these seeds needed the right conditions to accumulate and reproduce.
Panspermia theory also has many scenarios which aggregate to make up the theory:
• The initiation of life started on Mars and later subsided on earth through asteroids/comets where bacteria and amino acids resided in them.
• Life discretely began on Earth and Mars, believing that the process cross-fertilization would have later taken place.
• The origination of life was on earth then later propagated to mars, where it was possible for some sort of bacteria to be established.
• Life began on Earth and Mars but there was exchange in rocks (asteroids, comets etc.) which meant that there wasn't any transfer of life forming component.
• Life didn't start on a planet but derived itself from an asteroid, comet or Jupiter's moon Europa, Venus, something not in our solar system altogether. It is believed that life came to earth through some sort of Panspermia mechanism (bacteria).
• Mars was always lifeless; Life originated on earth and hasn't occupied other planets.
Panspermia claims when the bacteria or fundamental to accumulate an organism, has arrived on earth they evolved into macromolecules from the bonding of amino acids and these macromolecules would then grow and reproduce most certainly in warm water confinements like the ocean and ponds etc.

The evidence supporting the chemosynthetic theory is that the molecules utilized to assure the life of organisms and its genetic sufficiency and systematic function like DNA, RNA and ATP which were high in hydrogen containing carbon compounds indicated that the earth's atmosphere primitively was anoxic (oxygen free). Where the same evolving macromolecules utilize back in the days of primitive which helped promote the evolution if life on earth through chemical evolution.
The associated problem with the chemosynthetic theory is that it states that absolute barren, inhospitable land became something were simple organic molecules amalgamate but then, it doesn't state the type force enforced on these molecules to make them proceed into forming macromolecules. The theory also meant that if chemical reactions it would have comprised enzymes which are biological catalysts which reduce the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction. Also the theory states that nucleic acids subsequently emerged but then again it doesn't explain the possibilities of its emergence.
Sudipa Sarkar Profile
Sudipa Sarkar answered
The Russian biochemist A.I. Oparin proposed that the origin of life was the ultimate result of chemical evolution. He believed that the early atmosphere of the earth contained methane, ammonia, water vapour, and perhaps some free hydrogen. Interaction among these molecules produced simple organic molecules like sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, purines and pyrimidines. The energy for these reactions was provided by lightening, ultraviolet rays and cosmic rays. That such reactions were possible was proved by a simple but ingenious experiment performed by Stanely Miller in 1955. He passed electric discharges through a mixture of ammonia, methane, hydrogen, and water vapour in a closed atmosphere, thus simulating the early atmosphere on earth, and could recover a mixture of carbohydrates and amino acids.
Further reactions among these compounds formed polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Proteins thus formed reacted with nucleic acids to form nucleoproteins which had the inherent capacity of self-replication. Hydrophobic interactions perhaps gave rise to a structure something like the cell membrane enclosing these complex molecules, and a primitive cell like the present day prokaryotes was born. Life, thus, originated as a result of series of complex chemical reactions and, therefore, this hypothesis is known as the theory of chemosynthetic origin of life.
d ds Profile
d ds answered
According to the chemosynthetic theory of the world, initially was barren land and did not have any form of vegetation, was just a mass of various chemicals like ammonia, hydrogen and water vapor. These molecules were exposed to UV rays from the sun and it resulted in the formation of various organic compounds called hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were the framework on which the other compounds and then later on organisms were developed in the form of the first ever cellular organism. After this the nucleic acids developed that started to control over the internal processes of these organisms. These early cells developed into complex organisms. The problem with this theory is that it says that simple molecules started combing together but does not explain what was the force that made these molecules to show this behavior? The theory also says that nucleic acids appear but how were these complex molecule formed?

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