The following scientific method (in biology) are numbered in order:1) Observations
After determination of specific biological problem, observations are made to collect relevant information or data.
Observations alone do not usually provide solution to the scientific problems so hypothesis is made...2) Hypothesis
One or more hypothesis are made on the basis of observation.
The hypothesis are tested by scientific methods and the scientist hope that one of the hypothesis would turn out to be the solution of the scientific problem under study.A good hypothesis has the following points...
- It is closed to the observed facts
- The deductions can be drawn from it
- The deductions should be suitable for testing experimentally
- Results whether positive or negative should be reproduceable
A hypothesis usually cannot be directly tested therefore some deductions are made from hypothesis...3) Deduction
The logical conclusion drawn from a hypothesis form deductions.
If one deduction is found correct doesn't necessarily mean the hypothesis is correct. The validity of hypothesis is more supported if many deductions confirms the hypothesis.
Deduction can be tested and verified by experiments...4) Experiments
Experiments are designed to test the deduction. For this purpose experimental and control group are formed. *depending on the biological problem... For example malarial patients*Experimental group-
the group of those people who are affected in some way and we do not know the cause.Control group-
a group of unaffected people.
Both groups are kept in identical conditions.5) Results
The results verified the deduction and therefore the hypothesis.6)Theory
When a hypothesis has been proved by consistent results of many experiments, then it becomes theory.
A good theory tends to explain the broad based facts or generalizations.7) Scientific Principle
When a theory can explain many natural phenomena and is constantly supported by experiments, and also universally accepted by the scientists it becomes a scientific principle.