Whatever the underlying reason, it becomes obvious that there is one common, main goal. This main goal common to researchers in all areas of science is simply to gain knowledge and understanding. Results are achieved through painstaking observation of experiments, trial and error situations based on simple concepts, and evaluation of the observations made. How the knowledge gained is ultimately put to use depends on the scientific area of research. In depth understanding of how cancer or AIDS develop, for instance, will ultimately lead to effective cures for both of these diseases to be found. Penicillin, one of the most common antibiotics available, was discovered following research prompted by a simple observation of a common factor in individuals not affected by certain complaints.
Research conducted to understand the ability of birds and insects to fly has ultimately led to humans taking to the air in man-made machines using the physics of flight as learned from this research. The list of uses gained from research is endless, but every bit of advancement humans have achieved can be traced back to the curiosity or need to gain understanding of various individuals throughout history.
To sum it up once again, the ultimate goal of research within any scientific area is to gain knowledge and understanding of how things work. The results of research can then be put to use in order to create advanced possibilities for humanity.