How Is A Gene Transplanted?


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Shumaela Rana answered
Genes identified for specific proteins are cut and isolated in a tube from a source DNA.
Source may be humans, other mammals or plants. Source is the genetic donor. The isolated gene is first inserted into a vector. Vectors are carrier molecules for carrying the genes to a suitable host bacterium. The most commonly used vectors are Plasmids. Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules present in bacteria. Plasmids are placed in a solution containing the desired gene. Imagine what will happen when an endonuclease is introduced in the same solution. It will cut open the plasmid ring with its sticky ends exposed. The complementary sticky ends of the free gene will attach with open ends of plasmid by forming hydrogen bonds. Plasmid ring will close again. Another bacterial enzyme ligase serves as molecular glue. It will seal the ends. Now the gene has been inserted / spliced in plasmid. Plasmid becomes a recombinant DNA after incorporating / splicing another DNA.

Now bacteria are chosen as host for cloning this gene. They are exposed to recombinant plasmids. Bacteria take the plasmid in and become recombinant microbes. The bacteria reproduce into a large number of offspring each receiving a copy of the gene. It maintains the foreign gene through multiple generations. In this way multiplication of cloning host amplify the gene. The transplanted gene starts expressing itself in the host. Bacteria make the gene specified by the foreign gene.

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