Margarine is a food spread invented in 1870 (patented in 1873) by Hippolyte Mge Mouris, and named after the Greek margiritis, meaning 'pearl'. In 1869 Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory substitute for butter, suitable for use by the lower classes. French chemist Hippolyte Mge-Mouriés invented a substance he called oleomargarine, the name of which became shortened to the trade name "Margarine". Margarine now refers generically to any of a range of broadly similar edible oils. In the meantime, margarine manufacturers had made many changes. Modern margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, and is often mixed with skimmed milk, salt, and emulsifiers.