What Are The Structure And Functions Of Peroxisomes And Glyoxisomes?


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De Duve isolated particles from liver cells and other tissues, which were enriched with some oxidative enzymes, such as peroxidase, catalase, glycolic acid oxidase and urate oxidase. The name peroxisomes were applied because this organelle is specifically involved in the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Hydrogen peroxide is a highly reactive and toxic oxidizing agent. Peroxisomes are present in both plants and animals cells.

These are single membrane enclosed cytoplasmic organelles. They are approximately 0.5 micron in diameter. There are present 70-100 peroxisomes per cell. Liver peroxisomes also contain beta-oxidation system for oxidizing long chain fatty acids. The short chain fatty acids are oxidized in mitochondria. They have also been found in protozoa, yeast and many cell types of higher plants. In plants, peroxisomes play important roles in both catabolic and anabolic pathways.

It contain some of the same enzymes found in peroxisome (catalase and enzyme for fatty acid oxidation) but in addition, contains a number of other enzymes. Glyoxisomes are only found in plants. They are most abundant in plant seedlings, which rely upon stored fatty acids to provide them with the energy and material to begin the formation of a new plant. One of the primary activities in this germinating seedling is the conversion of stored fatty acid to carbohydrates. This is achieved through a cycle, glyoxylate cycle, the enzymes of which are located in the glyoxisomes.

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