What Are The Different Types Of RNA? Please Explain Their Role And Translation.


7 Answers

Jackie Russell Profile
Jackie Russell answered
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the three major macromolecules (along with DNA and proteins) that are essential for all known forms of life.

Like DNA, RNA is made up of a long chain of components called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nuclear base (sometimes called a nitrogenous base), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. The sequence of nucleotides allows RNA to encode genetic information. For example, some viruses use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material, and all organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins.

Different types of RNA include Messenger RNA, which is a ‘mirror image’ of the DNA encoding the amino acid sequence for the protein specified by the gene. Transfer RNA is an RNA molecule that ‘activates’ the amino acid and recognizes the code specifying that amino acid in the mRNA sequence. Ribosomal RNA is RNA that has a structural role in a complex called the ribosome; the ‘machine’ that actually joins amino acids together to make proteins.

Like proteins, some RNA molecules play an active role in cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) links amino acids together to form proteins.

Most RNA molecules are single-stranded. Single-stranded RNA molecules adopt very complex three-dimensional structures, since they are not restricted to the repetitive double-helical form of double-stranded DNA. RNA is made within living cells by RNA polymerases; enzymes that act to copy a DNA or RNA template into a new RNA strand through processes known as transcription orRNA replication, respectively.
sweetboy surendar Profile
RRNA (ribosomal RNA)make up the ribosomes that play an essential rol in the transcription of DNA.

MRNA  (messenger RNA) bring selected segments of DNA copies to ribosomes to be transcripted.

TRNA (transfer RNA) bring anti-codons to ribosomes so that amino acids can be created.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Types of RNA
-Messenger RNA (mRNA) = Carries copies of the instructions for assembling amino acids from DNA to the rest of the cell.

-Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) = Combined with proteins to form ribosomes.

-Transfer RNA (tRNA) = Transfers each amino acid to the ribosome to help assemble proteins.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
First I would explain what RNA stands for. It is known as Ribonucleic Acid. There are different forms of RNA. Their names are listed below. Each of these types of RNA has a different role. Their names are as follows:

• Messenger RNA ( mRNA )
• Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA )
• Transfer RNA ( tRNA )

Now coming to the functions of these various types of RNA within the complex mechanism of translation RNA.

Messenger RNA- The message encoded in mRNA molecule is translated into primary sequence of polypeptide chain.
Ribosomal RNA- Ribosomes are small organelles where protein synthesis takes place in the cell. Ribosomal RNA makes up 80% of the RNA within the cell. And the larger molecule contains over 3500 nucleotides.
Transfer RNA- There are a group of small RNA molecules each one for a particular amino acid. Their role is to carry amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Each tRNA recognizes coding sequence for a particular amino acid in the Messenger RNA. Transfer RNA molecules are about 75 nucleotides long and represent up to 15% of the cellular RNA.

Amongst the above mentioned types of RNA the most significant of these is the intermediary molecule the Messenger RNA also known as Genetic Messenger.
thanked the writer.
Ashiiii sharma
Ashiiii sharma commented
R u sure dat there r only 3 types. Wht about hnrna, microrna, transfer-messenger rna and small interfering rna???????//
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Types of RNA
      1.  MRNA - messenger RNA - carries information from DNA of the structural gene to the ribosome where the protein is made

      2.  TRNA - transfer RNA - carries amino acids to mRNA at the ribosome to assembly the protein being made

      3.  RRNA - ribosomal RNA - major structural component of the ribosome where protein synthesis occurs
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
I think they only listed the three primary forms of RNA...
The other ones are only mentioned when referring to specific cases.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
MRNA- carries genetic message to ribosomes
rRNA- together with proteins makes ribosomes
tRNA- carry amino acids to ribosomes

Answer Question