In 1814, the former Russian Academy of Sciences Ckirchoff K used a small amount of malt extract to convert starch into dextrin and sugar at room temperature, and initially recognized the catalytic action of the enzyme, and began the study of enzymes. In 1833, French chemists Anselme Payen and ean-Franois Persoz used ethanol to extract amylase from malt for desizing of cotton. The process of isolating amylase multimers from the malt of barley is described and named as "diastase" means "isolation". This is the first cell-free enzyme preparation and points out its catalytic properties and thermal instability.
In 1836, the German physiologist Theodor Schwann discovered a substance that dissolves meat, which loses its effect when exposed to heat at high temperatures, and it only works in a strongly acidic environment. In the study of the digestion process, a substance that digests protein in the stomach is isolated and named as pepsin. Used as a digestive drug.
In 1857, Pasteur proposed that alcoholic fermentation is the result of yeast cell activity. In 1896, the German Buchner brothers studied yeast and found that the cell-free extract of yeast also ferments sugar into alcohol.
He called this fermentable protein an enzyme (eymase), indicating that the enzyme can be separated from the broken cells in a dissolved state and in an active state rather than the cells themselves. Promote the separation of enzymes and explore its physical and chemical properties. Enzymology research began here, and Buchner won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
In 1896, Japan’s Takashi Ryuji discovered the peak amylase produced from Aspergillus oryzae, which was used as a digestive agent and opened the era of enzymatic application.
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In 1902, Henri proposed an intermediate product theory based on the experimental results of sucrase-catalyzed sucrose hydrolysis. He believes that before the substrate is converted into a product, it is necessary to first form an intermediate complex with the enzyme, then convert it to a product, and re-release the free enzyme. In 1903, Henrico proposed the theory of intermediate complexes of enzymes and substrates. In 1904, the British Harden used a dialysis bag to analyze the composition of the yeast extract. In 1908, the German Rohm softened the leather with trypsin and used it as an auxiliary detergent. France's Boiden isolated amylase from bacteria. In 1913, Michaelis and Menten proposed the Mie theory based on the theory of intermediate products, and derived the basic dynamic equation of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the Mie equation. In 1917, Effront isolated amylase from bacteria. Mass production in 1923 for fabric desizing.
In 1925, Briggs Handane made an important revision to the Mie equation and proposed a steady-state theory. Since 1917, he has used the bean powder as a raw material to separate and purify the urease. In 1926, Sumncr first isolated and purified urease crystals from the extract of the bean, which was the first crystallase obtained in the history of biochemistry. The well proves that it has the properties of a protein, suggesting that the chemical nature of the enzyme is a protein.
In the following 50 years, the concept of "two proteins with biocatalytic functions" is generally accepted. In 1937 he obtained the crystallization of catalase and purified several other enzymes. Sumncr's book: "Biochemistry Textbook", "Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes", "Enzyme-Chemistry and Its Mechanism of Action". Sumncr and Northrop won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Continuous directed evolution is a high-throughput protein engineering process that seamlessly integrates all fundamental processes in Darwinian evolution (replication, mutation, translation and selection) into an uninterrupted cycle. Traditional directed evolution methods handle each of these four processes separately, while continuous evolution method supports all four stages and allows the surviving genes from one generation to spontaneously enter the subsequent generation.