Who Are The Foreign Biologist And Their Contributions?


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Frances Bott answered
You don't say where you are from, so it is impossible to know what you consider to be foreign. Because of that, here is a list of biologists who have won the Nobel Prize, and what for.

• 2000 - 2007
In the year 2000, the prize was awarded jointly to Paul Greengard, Eric Kandel and Arvid Carlsson for the discoveries they made concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

2001 saw it being awarded jointly again; this time to R. Timothy Hunt, Paul M. Nurse and Leland H. Hartwell for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle.

In 2002, John E. Sulston, Sydney Brenner and H. Robert Horvitz won the Nobel Prize for their discoveries with regard to genetic regulation of organ development, and programmed cell death.

In 2003, Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield were the recipients of the prize for their discoveries relating to magnetic resonance imaging.

In 2004, it was the turn of Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel for their discoveries of odorant receptors, and the organization of the olfactory system.

Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren won the Nobel Prize in 2005 for discovering bacterium Heliobacter pylori, and the role it plays in peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

In 2006, Craig C. Mello and Andrew Z. Fire won it for discovering RNA interference.

In 2007, Oliver Smithies, Sir Martin J. Evans and Mario R. Capecchi were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the principles for introducing specific gene modifications by using embryonic stem cells in mice.

• 1995 - 1999
In 1995 the prize was awarded to Eric F. Wieschaus, Christiane Nusslein-Volhard and Edward B. Lewis for discovering regarding the genetic control of embryonic development in the early stages.

In 1996 Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel were awarded the prize for discovering the specifity of the cell mediated immune defense.

1997 saw Stanley B. Prusiner being awarded the prize for his discovery of Prions , which is a biological principle of infection.

In 1998, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad and Robert F. Furchgott won the prize because they made discoveries relating to nitric oxide being a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

In 1999, the prize was given to Gunter Blobel for discovering that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transportation.

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