A scientist who studies the Earth is commonly referred to as a geologist. Geology compromises of the solid state of the Earth and the processes that have led to it changing and shaping. It is geologists who have provided evidence for some of the most important discoveries in human history. These discoveries include; plate tectonics, the history of life and evolution, as well as past climates. Within the field of geology it is important to think about all of the components and sub disciplines that are involved. These include geological materials, methods of geology and applied geology.
- Geological Materials
The geological data that is collected from solid Earth materials can typically be divided into two categories; rock and unconsolidated materials. The rock cycle is an extremely important aspect of geology as it considers the relationship between the three types of rock and magma. Rock provides the primary resource for geological information and discoveries. The amount of knowledge that can be obtained from rocks is vast. Unconsolidated materials are those that have come from more recent deposits. It includes the studies of soil and sediment.
- Methods of Geology
Geologists can study the Earth in a number of different ways but the majority of their studies can be categorizes as either field methods or laboratory methods. Field methods include geological fieldwork such as geological mapping, biogeochemistry and collecting samples. Laboratory methods include petrology, structural geology and stratigraphy.
- Applied Geology
It is important to consider the application of geology to a number of other concepts within the world. Applied geology can occur as economic geology, petroleum geology, engineering geology and mining geology.